Congresses and Docs

Memorandum of Political Alternative, an updated version of 1.03.2019

Memorandum of Political Alternative

YABLOKO's Ten Key Programme Issues


YABLOKO's Political Platform Adopted by the 15th Congress, June 21, 2008

The 18th Congress of YABLOKO

RUSSIA DEMANDS CHANGES! Electoral Program for 2011 Parliamentary Elections.

Key resolutions by the Congress:

On Stalinism and Bolshevism
Resolution. December 21, 2009

On Anti-Ecological Policies of Russia’s Authorities. Resolution of the 15th congress of the YABLOKO party No 253, December 24, 2009

On the Situation in the Northern Caucasus. Resolution of the 15th congress of the YABLOKO party No 252, December 24, 2009


YABLOKO’s Political Committee: Russian state acts like an irresponsible business corporation conducting anti-environmental policies


Overcoming bolshevism and stalinism as a key factor for Russia¦µ™s transformation in the 21st century


On Russia's Foreign Policies. Political Committee of hte YABLOKO party. Statement, June 26, 2009


On Iran’s Nuclear Problem Resolution by the Political Committee of the YABLOKO party. October 6, 2009


Anti-Crisis Proposals (Housing-Roads-Land) of the Russian United Democratic Party YABLOKO. Handed to President Medvedev by Sergei Mitrokhin on June 11, 2009

Brief Outline of Sergei Mitrokhin’s Report at the State Council meeting. January 22, 2010


Assessment of Russia’s Present Political System and the Principles of Its Development. Brief note for the State Council meeting (January 22, 2010) by Dr.Grigory Yavlinsky, member of YABLOKO’s Political Committee. January 22, 2010


Address of the YABLOKO party to President of the Russian Federation Dmitry Medvedev. Political Committee of the YABLOKO party. October 9, 2009


The 17th Congress of YABLOKO




The 16th Congress of Yabloko

Photo by Sergei Loktionov

The 12th congress of Yabloko

The 11th congress of Yabloko

The 10th congress of Yabloko

Moscow Yabloko
Yabloko for Students
St. Petersburg Yabloko
Khabarovsk Yabloko
Irkutsk Yabloko
Kaliningrad Yabloko(eng)
Novosibirsk Yabloko
Rostov Yabloko
Yekaterinburg Yabloko
(Sverdlovsk Region)

Krasnoyarsk Yabloko
Ulyanovsk Yabloko
Tomsk Yabloko
Tver Yabloko(eng)
Penza Yabloko
Stavropol Yabloko

Action of Support





Programme by candidate for the post of Russian President Grigory Yavlinsky. Brief Overview

My Truth

Grigory Yavlinsky at Forum 2000, Prague, 2014

YABLOKO-ALDE conference 2014

Grigory Yavlinsky : “If you show the white feather, you will get fascism”

Grigory Yavlinsky: a coup is started by idealists and controlled by rascals

The Road to Good Governance

Risks of Transitions. The Russian Experience

Grigory Yavlinsky on the Russian coup of August 1991

A Male’s Face of Russia’s Politics

Black Sea Palaces of the New Russian Nomenklatura


The Hidden Cause of the Great Recession (And How to Avert the Nest One)

by Dr. Grigory Yavlinsky

On the results of the Conference “Migration: International Experience and Russia’s Problems” conducted by the Russian United Democratic Party YABLOKO and the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (the ALDE party)

Moscow, April 6, 2013

International Conference "Youth under Threat of Extremism and Xenophobia. A Liberal Response"
conducted jointly by ELDR and YABLOKO. Moscow, April 21, 2012. Speeches, videos, presentations

What does the opposition want: to win or die heroically?
Moskovsky Komsomolets web-site, July 11, 2012. Interview with Grigory Yavlinsky by Yulia Kalinina.

Building a Liberal Europe - the ALDE Project

By Sir Graham Watson

Lies and legitimacy
The founder of the Yabloko Party analyses the political situation. Article by Grigory Yavlinsky on radio Svoboda. April 6, 2011

Algorithms for Opposing Gender Discrimination: the International and the Russian Experience

YABLOKO and ELDR joint conference

Moscow, March 12, 2011

Reform or Revolution

by Vladimir Kara-Murza

Is Modernisation in Russia Possible? Interview with Grigory Yavlinsky and Boris Titov by Yury Pronko, "The Real Time" programme, Radio Finam, May 12, 2010

Grigory Yavlinsky's interview to Vladimir Pozner. The First Channel, programme "Pozner", April 20, 2010 (video and transcript)

Overcoming the Totalitarian Past: Foreign Experience and Russian Problems by Galina Mikhaleva. Research Centre for the East European Studies, Bremen, February 2010.

Grigory Yavlinsky: Vote for the people you know, people you can turn for help. Grigory Yavlinsky’s interview to the Moskovsky Komsomolets newspaper, October 8, 2009

Grigory Yavlinsky: no discords in the tandem. Grigory Yavlinsky’s interview to the Radio Liberty
September 22, 2009

A Credit for Half a Century. Interview with Grigory Yavlinsky by Natalia Bekhtereva, Radio Russia, June 15, 2009

Sergei Mitrokhin's Speech at the meeting with US Preseident Barack Obama. Key Notes, Moscow, July 7, 2009

Mitrokhin proposed a visa-free regime between Russia and EU at the European liberal leaders meeting
June 18, 2009

by Grigory Yavlinsky

European Union chooses Grigory Yavlinsky!
Your vote counts!

Reforms that corrupted Russia
By Grigory Yavlinsky, Financial Times (UK), September 3, 2003

Grigory Yavlinsky: "It is impossible to create a real opposition in Russia today."
Moskovsky Komsomolets, September 2, 2003

Alexei Arbatov: What Should We Do About Chechnya?
Interview with Alexei Arbatov by Mikhail Falaleev
Komsomolskaya Pravda, November 9, 2002

Grigory Yavlinsky: Our State Does Not Need People
Novaya Gazeta,
No. 54, July 29, 2002

Grigory Yavlinsky: The Door to Europe is in Washington
Obschaya Gazeta, May 16, 2002

Grigory Yavlinsky's speech.
March 11, 2002

Grigory Yavlinsky's Lecture at the Nobel Institute
Oslo, May 30, 2000



Yabloko: Liberals in Russia

By Alexander Shishlov, July 6, 2009

Position on Some Important Strategic Issues of Russian-American Relations

Moscow, July 7, 2009

The Embrace of Stalinism

By Arseny Roginsky, 16 December 2008

Nuclear Umbrellas and the Need for Understanding: IC Interview With Ambassador Lukin
September 25, 1997

Would the West’s Billions Pay Off?
Los Angeles Times
By Grigory Yavlinsky and Graham Allison
June 3, 1991

Russian regions: inequality of opportunities

Grigory Yavlinsky on the fact that well-being and career in Russia depend on the place of birth

Grigory Yavlinsky’s web-site, 4.10.2020

It is well known that the well-being and career of a person in Russia directly depends on the region in which he/she was born and raised. Inequality and injustice begin in our country from the place of birth.


The Pskov regional budget does not have money to procure firewood for the heating season, but the residents of the region regularly pay for the tests of various missiles. In the Saratov region, every third house has no sewerage system, but the taxes of the region’s residents finance a hybrid war in Donbass. The Chelyabinsk budget does not have funds to save the city from an environmental disaster, but Chelyabinsk residents’ money regularly goes to the war in Syria.

The coronavirus and low oil prices have led to a drop in the main sources of income for the Russian regions – income taxes, personal income tax and property taxes (see “What will happen to the economy and why did the oil price fall?”, March 2020). Consequently, the budget deficit of the Russian regions may become the highest since 2000. The Ministry of Finance reports on the debts of the regions to the state. The regions owe the centre 2.15 trillion roubles. By the end of 2020, the state debt of the regions will grow by 300 billion roubles. The debt burden of a number of regions (the ratio of the state debt to the region’s own income) is becoming very high. For example, in Mordovia, Khakassia, Pskov, Kostroma and Oryol regions the deficit of regional budgets can exceed 10 per cent of total revenues. In addition, regional expenditures will grow due to unforeseen but inevitable spending on the fight against coronavirus.


How to fix it?


To begin with, it is necessary to make sure that the residents of the regions themselves really determine how to spend tax revenues. As long as all decisions are made exclusively in Moscow (besides, not in the transparent way), there will never be enough money in the regions for the most necessary things – for healthcare, roads and schools.


It is known in the world that funds are most effectively spent when decisions are made at the level of municipalities by deputies who themselves live in a given district or city. However, in Russia, the opposite is true – municipal councils and city halls manage negligible amounts: the bulk of the budget is distributed at the federal level, the rest, less than half, – at the level of regional governments.


The opportunities, as well as the incomes of the subjects, are very uneven: Moscow or the oil and gas regions collect much more taxes than the rest of the country. In recent years, about half of Russia’s regions have been living with a deficit, that is, they spend more than what they earn and what comes from the centre. The situation with regional budget deficits is being improved by cuts in spending, including that for social budget items. Since regions are very different, one has to distribute money from the rich to the poor. The question is how to do this?


Until recently, about 20 – 30 per cent of the income of all regions remained in the local communities, while about 40 per cent was directed to the “leveling” between regions through federal transfers. But at the same time, there are completely non-transparent subsidies and grants that are received by the “selected” regions and the justification for which is unclear. This is bashfully called subsidies and grants for various “additional needs”.


Many social programmes have been launched at the regional level – from health care to school education. Due to lack of funds, hospitals are being closed or schools are being merged. According to Rosstat (the Russian statistical agency), from 2000 to 2019, the number of schools in the country decreased from 68,100 to 40,823; and the number of hospitals – from 10,700 to 5,300.


At the same time, two subsidised regions that require impressive costs were added to the country: Crimea and [the city of] Sevastopol. And then there are the wars in Syria and Donbass, the arms race, extremely opaque spending on the military-industrial complex, the costly mission of confronting the West and “building a separate civilization” (see After Lockdown, May 2020).


Meanwhile, the coronavirus in Russia continues to break records, and living standards continue to plummet. In this situation, some regions cut social spending, others collect up to 20 per cent of debts from commercial banks or declare a technical default.


Now, more than ever, it is clear that regional alignment is needed to bridge the huge gap between the resource or institutionally attractive regions and those deprived of both the privileges. Therefore, it is necessary to divide transfers into the equating and the stimulating part. But the most important thing is that financial aid is directed to the regions according to completely understandable and transparent rules. At the same time, municipalities should become the main managers of local funds.


Municipalities must compete among themselves for the most favorable conditions for business, and the federal centre must add its grants to those regions that remain below the average ratio of per capita income to tax potential in the country. At the first stage, it is necessary that the majority (more than 50 per cent) of income, sales and value added taxes remain at the regional level. In the future, the regions must independently decide whether to implement federal programmes or create their own, relying on their own financial capabilities.


However, an indispensable condition for correcting the situation in Russia and implementing any reasonable strategy is the establishment of the most basic institutions of accountability and democracy: a real federal structure, regular change of government, an independent judiciary, the rule of law, direct and competitive elections at the municipal, regional and federal levels.


Without this, it will never be possible to make sure that all citizens of Russia have equal rights and opportunities.




Grigory Yavlinsky

is Chairman of the Federal Political Committee of the Russian United Democratic Party YABLOKO, Vice President of Liberal International, PhD in Economics, Professor of the National Research University Higher School of Economics.