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Russia's ABM and Missile Defence Initiatives


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Russia's ABM Initiatives

Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the limitation of anti-ballistic missile systems (May 26, 1972)


Press releases


Press releases

YABLOKO leaders had a meeting with Bundestag deputies
Press Release, March 16, 2012.

YABLOKO leader Sergei Mitrokhin and Galina Mikhalyova, Executive Secretary of the Political Committee, had a meeting with Bundestag deputies from the Free Democratic Party. The German side was represented by Patrick Kurth, MP, and Serkan Toeren, MP, and Maximilian Spinner, Secretary of the Political Department of German Embassy.

Deputies of German Parliament were interested by the progress and assessment of the Russian parliamentary and presidential elections, growth of public activity in Russia and prospects of Russia’s political development. The discussion also evolved around the Russia-EU relations and Germany’s role in their improvement. "Visa-free regime for the Russian citizens to the EU and an anti-ballistic missile defence system that could be developed jointly with NATO are the initiatives of our party that we put forward as early as in 1990s," Sergei Mitrokhin stressed.

Sergei Mitrokhin discussed with US Ambassador Michael McFaul the issue of joint Russian – US ABM system
Press Release, January 17, 2012.

YABLOKO Chairman Sergei Mitrokhin participated in the meeting of representatives of the Russian opposition with new US Ambassador to Russia Michael McFaul.
“I spoke to Ambassador about the need to continue the dialogue on the problems of joint Russia-US anti-ballistic missile defence initiated by the YABLOKO party in the end of 1990s,” Mitrokhin told the journalists after the meeting...

Norwegian liberals greeted proposals by YABLOKO’s leader on closer cooperation of Russian and Europe with a storm of applause

Press Release, April 4, 2011.

YABLOKO’s leader Sergei Mitrokhin made a speech at a congress of Norwegian liberal party Venstre on April 3, 2011. His speech was devoted to the issues of European integration, Russia’s role in this process, as well as problems Russia encounter in its development as a democratic state. Over 500 people were present at the congress: delegates of the Venstre party and leaders of foreign sister parties.

In his speech Sergei Mitrokhin told to his foreign colleagues about the history and the structure of the YABLOKO party, as well as the liberal and democratic values YABLOKO have been advocating for almost 20 years already.

Sergei Mitrokhin also said that the approach of the Western leaders based on Realpolitik had failed. YABLOKO’s leader called the EU to develop a single strategy in its relations with Russia: “The lack of firm approach to Russia when liberal values or human rights are concerned was regarded as a kind of carte blanche by our elites. And now we all have what we have”...

Russian Opposition Leaders Give Details Of Meeting With US Vice President

Interfax, March 10, 2011.

...Grigoriy Yavlinskiy discussed with Biden the prospects of setting up joint Russian-NATO missile defence, and the internal political situation in the Russian Federation, the Yabloko press service has told Interfax.
"Yavlinskiy regards joint missile defence as the most substantial and promising aspect of Russian-US security cooperation, which is importance not only for the two countries but for the whole world," Yabloko press secretary Igor Yakovlev said.
Touching upon the internal political situation in Russia, the former party leader said that its main difficulties, including the lack of vital democratic procedures, had long been known. In this context, he believes that it is important to realize that the issue that has to be tackled is the replacement of the system created back in the 1990s, and this is a much more complex and in-depth process than the change of personalities in power...

Grigory Yavlinsky discussed with US Vice President Joseph Biden the prospects of a joint Russia-NATO ABM system and political situation in Russia

Press Release, March 10, 2011.

Development of Russia-US strategic relations on the basis of the mutual assured destruction (MAD) concept had become outdated already long ago, such a statement was made by Dr.Grigory Yavlinsky, member of YABLOKO’s Political Committee, during the meeting with US Vice President Joseph Biden.

According to Yavlinsky, we should all abolish the old view on the Russia-US relations as a zero-sum game, when a success of one of the parties means a defeat of the other one...

YABLOKO’s leader on the Presidential Address to the Federal Assembly

Based on Russian media reports, December 1, 2010

YABLOKO’s leader Sergei Mitrokhin expressed his disappointment with Presidential Address to the Russian parliament, as Russian President Dmitry Medvedev virtually failed to propose any measures in the field of political reform. “He did not say a word about the “glorified” United Russia party and nothing was proposed in the field of political reform, however, in an earlier statement the President had noted that without such a reform we would not be able to overcome the signs stagnation,” Mitrokhin said. “Only cosmetic changes has taken place; whereas inequality of the parties that will run in the parliamentary elections has been maintained. In addition, the past regional and municipal elections demonstrated that election fraud did not reduce at all,” he noted...

Nuclear Disarmament and Arms Control – Using the New Momentum in the Debate for a “Global Zero”

Resolution of ELDR Congress, Helsinki, October 13-15, 2010

submitted by FDP, Germany, and YABLOKO, Russia

The European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party, convening in Helsinki, Finland, on 13-15 October 2010:

ELDR welcomes the new drive in the debate on nuclear disarmament and arms control that has been neglected for too long. This progress is reflected in particular in President Obama’s speech in Prague and also in the debate on the declining importance of nuclear weapons laid down in NATO’s new strategic concept and in the successful conclusion of the 2010 Review Conference on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)... MORE

European liberals’ Congress discusses relations between Russia and EU

Press Release, October 14, 2010

Today, on October 14, a congress by the European Liberal Democrats party (ELDR) opened in Helsinki. YABLOKO is a full member of ELDR. A welcoming address to over 500 delegates of the Congress was made by Annemie Neyts-Uyttebroeck MEP, ELDR President, and Mari Kiviniemi, Prime Minister of Finland. In her speech Mari Kiviniemi dwelled upon relations between Russia and Finland stating that Russia was “the key economic partner for Finland”. Prime Minister of Finland expressed her opinion that one of the main problems for Russia at present was overcoming Russia’s dependence on raw. Mari Kiviniemi also expressed her hope that Russian-Finnish cooperation will be broadening in all the spheres: economy, education and culture, humanitarian exchanges and other...

In his speech ... Sergei Mitrokhin told about the situation with the recent elections in Russia and also discussed a number of YABLOKO’s foreign policy initiatives...

On Iran’s Nuclear Problem

Resolution by the Political Committee of the YABLOKO party. October 6, 2009

The Russian United Democratic Party YABLOKO expresses its deep concern in view of the new aggravation of the situation around Iran’s nuclear problem.
A secret construction of the second Iran’s uranium enrichment plant, which the world public has learned about, shows that Teheran continues its course towards challenging the UN, as well as regional and global security. New tests of ballistic missiles, including medium-range Shahab-3, have shifted the crisis into a dangerous phase.

Iran’s procession of nuclear weapons presents considerable threats for the national interests of Russia, the USA, the EU countries and the entire civilised world. Russia can not allow being turned into a target of nuclear blackmail from another neighbouring state...

The Russian United Democratic Party YABLOKO thinks that it is high time for Russia to take a principled position, stop lulling itself about Iran’s intentions, as well as break Iran’s tactics of playing on discrepancies between the great superpowers and using Russia in its own interests contradicting to the international security goals...

YABLOKO’s Political Committee determined the tasks of the responsible opposition in modern Russia

Press-Release, September 26, 2009

A meeting of YABLOKO’s Political Committee took place on September 26. The Committee developed the goals of the party in modern Russia.

YABLOKO’s leader Sergei Mitrokhin indicated in his report to the Committee that a system of bureaucratic cronyism developed in modern Russia. Its goal is to maintain in power one and the same ruling group for an unlimited period of time.

“Supporting a number of President Medvedev’s recent statements on the need of modernisation in Russia YABLOKO states that their realisation is incompatible with the real goals of this system,” Mitrokhin said.

Mitrokhin expressed his certainty that this system “can lead Russia to stagnation reminiscent of the stagnation of the Brezhnev period in the USSR, when the political elite lost the chance to conduct modernisation of the USSR, thus dooming it to disintegration”.

According to Mitrokhin, the task of the opposition is to offer an alternative to the political course of the country present leaders, such as building of a modern state based on democratic institutes and procedures.

On the need of further steps for creation of a joint Russian-European ABM system

Statement by Chairman of the Russian United Democratic Party YABLOKO, September 21, 2009

The Russian United Democratic Party YABLOKO considers that urgent conclusion of multi-lateral agreements on creation of an anti-ballistic missile defence (ABM) system for Europe jointly with the USA, NATO and the European Union is a challenging and strategically important task for Russia.

Implementation of this project is of global significance. At the expected rates of nuclear missile proliferation, the number of potential threats of missile attacks against Russia, the US, Europe and any country of the world will only broaden. A joint ABM system of the technologically developed states and Russia as a country with one of the largest nuclear missile potentials will become the most important element for protection of the planet from nuclear threats in the 21st century. For Europe creation of ballistic missile defence (BMD) jointly with Russia will represent the first large step towards creation of such a system and will be also important for raising the efficiency of nuclear non-proliferation policy.

YABLOKO supports the decision of US President Barack Obama not to deploy ABM system in the Czech Republic

Press Release, September 18, 2009

The Russian United Democratic Party YABLOKO thinks that the statement made by US President Barack Obama on abolishing of the plans to deploy elements of the ABM system in the Eastern Europe opens new opportunities for the Russian-American strategic partnership.

“This is a correct decision made by President Obama, it wipes away the issue which has been continuously producing unnecessary tensions and makes space for constructive cooperation between Russia and the USA in strengthening of the European security,” that is how Sergei Mitrokhin, leader of the YABLOKO party, commented on the US decision to abolish plans on stationing US radar in the Czech Republic.
Sergei Mitrokhin also noted that “signs that the approach of the new US administration as regards deployment of the ABM system in the Eastern Europe would be rational” appeared during President Obama’s visit to Moscow in July.

Sergei Mitrokhin and Barak Obama discussed the Russian ABM system
Press Release, July 7, 2009
“I am currently reconsidering the issue of ABM deployment in Europe. I can not rule out joint actions with Russia in this field. But that will be another security architecture,” that’s how US President reacted on the proposal of YABLOKO’s leader Sergei Mitrokhin to abolish plans of unilateral deployment of ABM systems in Europe and consider organisation of a joint Russian-American ABM system.


YABLOKOs leader proposes a joint Russia-US BMD project at the meeting with Barak Obama
Press Release, July 7, 2009

Strategic partnership and a joint Russia-US BMD system were the key points of Sergei Mitrokhin’s speech at the meeting with US President Barak Obama which took place in Moscow today, on July 7.

Speaking about the possibilities of implementation of the strategic partnership idea Sergei Mitrokhin noted that “today we have a favourable moment for supporting the idea with real actions”.


From a joint ABM system to strategic partnership
Press Release, July 7, 2009
Supporting declarations of strategic partnership by definite actions and improvement of understanding of each other represent the urgent tasks of Russia-US relations from the point of view of the YABLOKO party. Such statements are made in the document handed by Sergei Mitrokhin, YABLOKO’s leader, to President of the USA Barak Obama during their meeting on July 7.


Position on Some Important Strategic Issues of Russian-American Relations
Moscow, July 7, 2009
Certainly, there are prerequisites for full-scale cooperation, as both Russia and the USA largely belong to the European culture and civilization. The tragedies of the 20-th century have split our world, however, the policies of the 21st century have to bring it together again on the basis of shared values. This requires much effort, but the result is worth it. The good will of our society (rather than a history’s whim or a blind chance) made possible the deconstruction the totalitarian system. This fact demonstrates that freedom and democracy are as important for the Russian citizens, as for the Americans. Whatever complicated situations we have to face in the future, it should be borne in mind that Russians are the people capable of understanding Americans. The main thing which the US President can do here is to try to understand Russia and its people.


Moscow, July 7, 2009
Discussion of strategic partnership between our countries has been held for a long time, however, little has been done for realization of this goal. Today we have a favourable moment for filling the idea with real actions. Cooperation in solution of international and global problems in many fields is on the agenda now. We think that such cooperation could become a real alternative to the neoimperialist projects and approaches that are today “en vogue” with the Russian political and military elite.


Grigory Yavlinsky expects a breakthrough in military and political issues during the summit meeting of Vladimir Putin and George Bush
Press Release, May 22, 2002
The leader of the YABLOKO party Grigory Yavlinsky expects first and foremost a breakthrough in military and political issues during the summit meeting of Vladimir Putin and George Bush.


After meeting with Condoleezza Rice, Grigory Yavlinsky declared that the US had acknowledged the urgent need to create a non-strategic Russian-European ABM
Press release, July 26, 2001
America acknowledges the acuteness of the creation of non-strategic Russian-European anti-ballistic missile defence (ABM) system involving the US, said the leader of the Yabloko party and its parliamentary faction Grigory Yavlinsky in an interview with the Interfax agency on Thursday.


Yabloko considers the statement of US President George Bush on ABM an invitation to negotiations
“These should be negotiations on the prospects for strategic stability in the world,” said Deputy Head of the Yabloko faction Sergei Ivanenko in an interview with the press on May 2, 2001.
Press release, 02.05.01

Grigory Yavlinsky proposes negotiations according to the “4+1” formula to obtain “some improvements” in the ABM Treaty of 1972

The leader of the Yabloko Association Grigory Yavlinsky proposed holding negotiations according to the “4+1” formula between the USA, Russia, Great Britain and China to achieve “some improvement” in the ABM Treaty of 1972. This proposal is contained in the Memorandum of Grigory Yavlinsky made for participants of the Tripartite Commission conference in London (a non-governmental forum uniting famous politicians and businessmen) on March 11, 2001.

Press Release, 12.03.01

Grigory Yavlinsky: Russia may be left on the roadside

“To establish an effective anti-missile "umbrella" over Europe, radars should therefore be deployed on almost half of Russia's territory,” said the leader of Yabloko Grigory Yavlinsky on March 6, 2001 in an interview with the Argumenti i Fakti weekly. “It is necessary to cooperate on behalf of common security. One of our conditions should be placement of NATO orders at our enterprises.

Yabloko supports the recent initiatives of the RF President on the creation of the European Non-Strategic Anti-missile Defence System

According to Ivanenko, Yabloko is convinced that "the creation of the Russian-European non-strategic ABM system could become the first stage in the revival of the Russian military-industrial complex and economy in general."

Press Release, 21.02.01

Grigory Yavlinsky: Russia and Europe should create a joint ABM system while cooperating here with NATO and the USA

Russia and Europe should create a joint anti-ballistic missile system that offers protection from medium-range and tactical missiles while cooperating with NATO and the United States.

Press Release, 12.02.01

Grigory Yavlinsky advocates the creation of a joint Russian-European ABM system

Yavlinsky also reminded the press that proposals to create a Russian-European ABM system were first formulated at the end of 1997. Then the initiative was discussed by Yabloko’s leader and representatives of the former US administration, in particular Vice-President Albert Gore and State Secretary Madeleine Albright.

Press Release, 31.01.01

Grigory Yavlinsky: Europe displays interest in the joint creation with Russia of the European non-strategic anti-missile defence system

Europe has demonstrated interest in the creation jointly with Russia of the European non-strategic anti-missile defence system.

This declaration was made by Yabloko leader Grigory Yavlinsky after the meeting with the Prime Minister of Sweden Goran Persson and Minister of Defence Bjorn von Sudow on June 15, 2000.

Press Release, 15.06.00

Briefing of Grigory Yavlinsky on the visit of US President Bill Clinton to Moscow.

Moscow, the State Duma

Grigory Yavlinsky: The main purpose of the visit of the President of the United States to Moscow was to discuss issues related to the anti-missile defence system. I think that these talks should be continued with President Clinton until the elections in the US, and then with the new President of the United States.

Press Release, 06.06.00

Sergei Ivanenko approves of the presidential initiative to create an anti-missile umbrella nuclear shield jointly with the USA

Deputy head of the Yabloko faction Sergei Ivanenko approves of the President Putin-s proposal to the USA on the joint creation of an anti-missile defence system.

Press Release, 02.06.00

Vladimir Lukin: the creation of a single anti-missile defence system jointly with the five nuclear superpowers would be the best solution

Deputy Speaker of the State Duma Vladimir Lukin (from the Yabloko faction) thinks that the best solution would be to begin negotiations between the five nuclear superpowers v the USA, Russia, France, Great Britain and China.

Press Release, 02.06.00

Alexei Arbatov is certain that the START II Treaty will be ratified

Deputy Chairman of the Defence Committee of the State Duma Alexei Arbatov (the Yabloko faction) thinks that there is a good chance the the Duma will ratify START II treaty when it convenes on April 14, 2000.

Press Release, 14.04.00

The Yabloko faction supports ratification of the START II Treaty

In autumn 1994 when the State Duma began debating ratification of the START II Treaty, the Yabloko faction decided to support ratification and has not changed its position since then.

Press Release, 13.04.00

Grigory Yavlinsky: "Russia and Europe need a joint anti-missile umbrella"

The leader of the Yabloko association, Grigory Yavlinsky, advocates a revision of the Soviet-American anti-missile defence treaty (signed in 1972) and the creation of a joint Russian-European anti-missile defence.

Press Release, 01.02.00


Russian and European Modernisation

Speech by Sergei Mitrokhin
Liberal International Executive Committee
Berlin, June 11, 2010

Announcing a policy towards modernisation in Russia President of Russia put himself in line with a number of Russian rulers-reformers who aspired to perform radical transformations in the country. Some specific traits of this policy resemble those of his predecessors. The President understands modernisation primarily as acceleration of scientific and technological development. With some reservations about the need for political reform, the latter look like a number of quite shallow and very systematic activities...

Grigory Yavlinsky: no discords in the tandem

Grigory Yavlinsky’s interview to the Radio Liberty
September 22, 2009

Radio Liberty: Many Russian politicians are enthusiastic about Barack Obama abolishing the plans of deployment of the elements of the American ABM system in Central Europe. Do you share such feelings?

Grigory Yavlinsky: No, I don’t, as these missiles and the decision of deployment of the ABM system adopted by President Bush did not threaten Russia in any way. It had a symbolic meaning. What Barack Obama did, was done because he was amending an error made by george Bush, rather than yielding to Russia, as President Bush’ decision was absolutely inefficient - technically, economically and strategically. He had enough courage to shelve the erroneous plan created by George Bush.

R.L: How do you assess the reaction of the Russian politicians who are speaking about this as of a large diplomatic victory of Moscow then?

G.Y.: As immature, it stirs pity. Such a reaction can not serve as a basis for further development of reasonable, earnest, and, if we further elaborate on this thought, grownup relationships with the developed countries. In general this is a trade-in approach – if you give something to me, then I give something to you, if you take away your missiles, we shall help you or will not help you somewhere in Iran – such an approach to the world politics is extremely primitive. Such approaches proved leading to deadlocks and inefficient, but, unfortunately they have been widely spread not only in Russia, but in the West too...

Mitrokhin: Obama admits conflict-prone nature of the American ABM
ITAR TASS, July 8, 2009 00:09

US President Barack Obama admits that deployment of the US ABM system in Europe is prone of conflicts, said Sergei Mitrokhin, leader of the YABLOKO party, after today’s meeting of Barack Obama with the Russian oppositions.


The War against Terrorism and the Transformation of the World Order, three perpesctives
By Alexei G. Arbatov, CEPS Commentary, November 2001

...two months later after the "Black September", the weaknesses of the coalition and deficiencies of the operation are becoming more and more evident, as well as the confusion and inconsistency of the United States and other major players in adopting a new security strategy and still less in implementing it... (Archive)


Under a Single Umbrella
By Alexei Arbatov, Nezavisimaya Gazeta, April 7, 2003

The unfolding drama of the war in Iraq has pushed less sensational problems to the background, even though these problems may be extremely important in the long term.


U.S. Withdraws From ABM Treaty; Global Response Muted
Arms Control Association. By Wade Boese. July-August 2002


A Russian View. Interview with Alexei Arbaton on ABM Treaty
pbs.org, August 14, 2001


Interview with Alexei Arbatov, Deputy Chairman of the State Duma Defence Committee on the ABM treaty
Ekho Moskvi Radio Station, June 13, 2002


Bush Pushes On in Post-ABM World
Reuters, June 14, 2002
WASHINGTON -- Thirty years after taking effect as a bulwark of Cold War deterrence, the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty expired Thursday, freeing the United States to pursue aggressively its goal of a multibillion-dollar defense system against enemy missiles.


Russians Ponder U.S. Relations
By JUDITH INGRAM, Associated Press Writer, April 2, 2002
MOSCOW (AP) - Ahead of a Russian-U.S. summit next month, Russians increasingly are asking what rewards they have reaped from joining the U.S.-led anti-terrorist coalition and where President Vladimir Putin pro-Western policy is leading the nation.


Deputies See Little New in U.S. Report
By Gregory Feifer Staff Writer, The Moscow Times, March 12, 2002
In what would amount to opening a new front in its war on terrorism, the United States is considering sending 100 to 200 U.S. special operations soldiers to Georgia, Legislators said Monday there was nothing essentially new in reports that the United States is preparing military contingency plans to use nuclear weapons in certain tactical situations against at least seven countries, including Russia.

Temporary Friendship or Eternal Union?
Obschaya Gazeta, January 24, 2002
Our party has from the outset ultimately backed the position expressed by President Vladimir Putin in his television address to the nation on September 11, 2001, - solidarity with the US in the fight against international terrorism, a course towards rapprochement with the West and the establishment of a partnership and preferably an alliance.


Putin: U.S. ABM Withdrawal a 'Mistake'
By Sarah Karush, Associated Press, December 13, 2001
Russian President Vladimir Putin called the U.S. decision to withdraw from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty a ``mistake'' Thursday, but said it would pose no military threat to Russia.


Bush Plans ABM Treaty Withdrawal
By Barry Schweid,
Associated Press, December 12, 2001
President Bush told congressional leaders Wednesday he will withdraw from a treaty considered a cornerstone of arms control but one that hampers his quest for a defense against missile attack.


Putin silent as leaders vent fury over ABM opt-out
By Jon Boyle,
Reuters, December 13, 2001
Russian politicians roundly condemned on Thursday Washington's impending departure from the ABM treaty, but few expected President Vladimir Putin to make a drama out of a crisis from which he should emerge unscathed.


Russia must remain in Europe, expert says
Rosbalt Information Agency, July 24, 2001


Russian Security or NATO Expansion?
By Alexei Arbatov

The project of restructuring the European political system after the Cold War is full of contradictions, a source of intellectual confusion and political uncertainty. Radical changes in the military-strategic situation on the old continent have created great temptations for countries to take hasty, short-sighted steps which could permanently damage the development of a new system of collective security. At the same time, those changes have generated new possibilities for more constructive relations between states. How, then, can we take advantage of these opportunities while resisting the temptations?


U.S., Russia Meet Over Missile Shield
By Jim Heintz
The Moscow Times, May 14, 2001, p. 5
Coming to ground zero of opposition to U.S. plans for a national missile defense system, a high-level American delegation met Friday with Russian officials to discuss the divisive plan.


Bush says Russia not enemy but could be threat

Reuters, March 13, 2001

President George W. Bush said on Tuesday that his administration planned to make it clear to Russian President Vladimir Putin that it did not see Russia as an enemy, although it may be a threat.


Felix Filippovsky: Language May Lead Russia and NATO into an Alliance

Vremya MN, March 6, 2001, p. 3

Yavlinsky’s proposals on the Russian-European non-strategic anti-ballistic missile defence system were formulated three years ago. Today, they virtually formed the basis of Russia's official doctrine.

Grigory Yavlinsky: Umbrella for Europe, Money for Russia, Death to Ben Laden

Argumenty i Fakty, No. 10, 2001

In 1998, Grigory Yavlinsky was the first Russian politician to raise the question of a Russia-Europe non-strategic missile-defence system. At that time many people considered the Yabloko leader's initiative to be too revolutionary. Things have changed only now Vladimir Putin proposes that Europe create such a system. In the following article Yavlinsky provides his own assessment of the meaning of the Russian President's initiative.

Three Years and the Whole ABM Story

Obschaya Gazeta, 22.02.01

...And what was the result? After becoming acquainted with the letter, George Bush Jr. transfers Yavlinsky's initiative to Russian-American soil, and sends a letter to Putin on February 20, proposing the involvement of the enterprises of the Russian military-industrial complex in the creation of ABM components. In the morning the Kremlin, obviously frightened by such a radical wording of the issue - which is extremely favourable in terms of propaganda - urgently sets forth counter-initiatives to Europe, again, in accordance with Yavlinsky's logic. The difference is that Bush had been thinking over the answer for three weeks, and the Kremlin for three years. The very three years during which this protracted rivalry over ABM could have resulted in an entirely different outcome for Russia.

Putin Touts Limited Shield to NATO

By Simon Saradzhyan, Staff Writer, The Moscow Times, Wednesday, February 21, 2001. Page 1

"The Russian proposal deals with threats posed by short- and mid-range missiles, while the American system is intended to fend off intercontinental missiles," Arbatov said on ORT.

If Grigory Yavlinsky were president...

Komsomolskaya Pravda, January 31, 2001, p. 6

The USA, Russia and Europe have a right to defend themselves from non-strategic nuclear weapons. The creation of a Russian-European missile defence system is our political goal, and one of the most important strategic priorities. Our military analysts understand that a reliable anti-missile umbrella cannot be created without using Russian territory, from Russia's Western borders to the Urals.

How China and Russia Are Reacting to NMD

St Peterburg Times N 640, Tuesday, January 30, 2001

At Davos, a Chinese position is being explored to agree to a level of U.S. missile defense that would counter blackmail from rogue states - but, in return for inspection rights given to the U.S., would not be overly effective against what China likes to think of as its own nuclear deterrent.
In Russia, a similarly happy outcome is possible, but the impetus is different from China's, because the Russian regime is supremely confident of its political stability, whereas China is not.

After test fails, Russia again urges U.S. to drop missile shield proposal
CNN World July 8, 2000
MOSCOW (CNN) -- Russian officials on Saturday reiterated their opposition to the U.S. National Missile Defense System after a key test of the program by the Pentagon failed overnight.

Remarks of Alexei G. Arbatov, Deputy Chair, Defense Committee, State Duma of Russian Federation

Carnegie Moscow Center-sponsored seminar on START-ABM Treaties, 24 May 2000

Russia, as you are aware, ratified START II and the New York documents last April. The United States ratified the START II Treaty in 1996. Now we find ourselves in a quite strange situation. Both the United States and Russia ratified START II, but they ratified absolutely