|March 31, 2003
of the State Duma Sergei Mitrokhin send inquiry to
the Federal Security Service requesting help in identify
the source of unauthorized spam mail
Press release, March 31, 2003
In connection with the ongoing unauthorized spam e-mails,
deputy of the State Duma Sergei
Mitrokhin (the YABLOKO faction) has sent an official
inquiry to the Head of the Federal Security Service
Nikolai Patrushev. The letter contains a demand "that
corresponding departments be instructed to conduct
an investigation to identify the source of the unauthorized
spam mail and prevent such actions in future."
experts on the situation around Iraq
Anchor - Vladimir Pozner, Channel One TV, "Vremena" programme, March 30, 2003
We need to think and must not become
emotional. It is not Russia's war. We are not particularly interested
in the regime in Iraq after the war. We should not be emotionally
attached to Saddam Hussein's regime, unlike some of our friends
on the Left.
provocations against YABLOKO in the Internet
Press release, March 28, 2003
On March 26, 2003, unknown malefactors sent out spam
e-mails allegedly from deputy of the State Duma Sergei
Mitrokhin (the YABLOKO faction). A letter with
a return address Mitrokhin@yabloko.ru was sent to
a list of addressees. We don’t know the addresses
on this list The letter contained "cooperation
proposals" and a reference to the personal web-site
of Sergei Mitrokhin.
campaign against YABLOKO and Yavlinsky
Special for the YABLOKO web-site, March 28, 2003
In January-March 2003 the media conducted a campaign
to defame and discredit an alternative plan for reforming
the housing and communal services sector developed
by YABLOKO. The television channel, Ren-TV, newspapers
such as Rossiyskaya Gazeta, Tribuna, Noviye Izvestiya
and 30 regional newspapers were employed in the campaign.
Yavlinsky: the Iraqi war will not spoil US-Russian
BBC Monitoring, Radio Mayak, March 29, 2003
"The USA committed a major political mistake,
which is leading to numerous casualties among civilian
population and troops. TheYabloko party believes that
there was no direct threat from Iraq at the time.
Although it was not easy to carry out inspections
and disarm Iraq, there was no direct cause for starting
|March 28, 2003
Nightmare for Journalists
By Marina Ozerova and Liuba Shariy, Moskovsky Komsomolets, March 28, 2003
Sure, one may say: don't break the rules, and everything will be
okay. Yet our laws are written to permit two or three possible interpretation
of their meaning. Meanwhile, unfortunately, one cannot rely on the
Russian courts as the most humane and independent courts in the
Putin a Secret Member of YABLOKO?
By Tzyren Damdinov, Zabaikalskii Rabochii, March 19,
...And there is nothing bad in that. But I don't set
myself such a task, I only ask that the reader to
be more attentive to the political gabbling , and
try to look at the roots, and remember the promises
of our candidates to elections at all levels.
|March 27, 2003
leaders of teacher trade unions supported the initiative
of Alexander Shishlov to create a trilateral commission
to finalise the planned reform of wages for budget
Press release, March 26, 2003
action (on February 26-28, 2003) against the government's reform plans
for the wages for budget workers had clearly been a success: "The
Government acknowledged that the draft concept of the Labour Ministry
should contain federal guarantees for the wages of budget workers."
|March 26, 2003
Yavlinsky: "The President Alone Cannot Control
Interview with Grigory Yavlinsky, Gazeta, March 25, 2003
Society needs an independent Duma. If we have an imitation
Duma instead of a real Duma, and the court and elections, parties
and politics are also an imitation, then we may end up with an
imitation of presidential power. We should not forget about this.
Runs into the Moscow Fronde for the First Time
By Yulia Petrovskaya, Nezavisimaya Gazeta, March 25, 2003
What is the real source
of this most recent tension in Russian-US relations, and what
are the implications of the military equipment story for Moscow?
We asked some experts.
Eyes Election Violations
By Nabi Abdullaev, The Moscow Times, March 26, 2003
With parliamentary and presidential elections looming,
the State Duma
passed in the first reading Friday a raft of amendments that toughen
penalties for electoral violations by individuals and the media.
Fires Back at Bush
By Simon Saradzhyan and Oksana Yablokova, The Moscow Times, March 26, 2003
The Kremlin fired a new salvo in the battle of words
between Moscow and Washington over Iraq on Tuesday, insisting that
it was President Vladimir Putin rather than his U.S. counterpart
who had initiated the discussion of alleged sales of Russian defense
equipment to Iraq during their last phone conversation.
Arbatov: Politically the USA is losing the war in
RIA Novosti, March 25, 2003
campaign of the anti-Iraqi coalition is proceeding more or less
according to plan in purely military aspects. Politically, however,
the US has already begun to lose the war.
Arbatov: The CIS states supporting the US war against
Iraq are stating their reputation
RIA Novosti, March 25, 2003
Deputy Chairman of the State Duma Defence Committee,
stated at a press conference that the decision taken
by Georgia, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan and Ukraine to
support the US in their war against Iraq "besmirches
the Iraqi War Lead to Deterioration in Russia-US Relations?
RIA Novosti, March 25, 2003
The politician said that the United States
would demand the support of Russia and European countries, and
then when this was denied, would make accusations against other
in the Duma - updated
in the State Duma For the adoption of the Federal
Law "On Amendments and Addenda tothe Federal Law "On
the Basis of Federal Housing Policy". Second Reading.
Roll-call voting in the State Duma, March 21, 2003
|March 25, 2003
Special for YABLOKO web-site, By Grigory Yavlinsky, March 24, 2003
Real progress towards an improvement in the situation can be
expected, if the authorities adhere to their promises on guaranteeing
social support for the citizens of Chechnya and there is an end
to the mop-ups, torture, violence and kidnapping of people.
Parties as They Are
By Dmitry Olshansky, Prof. Director of the Centre
for Strategic Analysis and Forecasts, Vremya Novostei, No. 46, March 2003
Six months ago sociologists concluded that the "undecided"
proportion of respondents (the floating votes unable to make up
their mind, as they don’t like any of the options) amounted to 20-25%
of the total. This was only natural a year before the elections.
However, six months later, the situation has changed, with the number
of floating voters growing to 40% of the electorate. Who will they
choose at the last possible moment? Who will they vote for? What
negative element could come from this block? These are disturbing
to silence mass media before elections
By Marina Sokolovskaya, Natalia Rostova, gazeta.ru, March 24, 2003
The State Duma has given initial approval to a presidential
draft law that makes amendments to legislation governing the activity
of media outlets during election campaigns. The deputies, however,
have ignored the concerns expressed by the media over the draft
Government barely managed to push through the State
Duma the law on reform of the housing and communal
Press release, March 21, 2003
The Yabloko faction thinks that the government and factions supporting
the government used inappropriate tactics to push through the State
Duma the draft law on housing and communal services sector reform.
opposes the election campaign repressions introduced
by the Central Electoral Commission
The Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, The State Duma of the Russian Federation, The YABLOKO faction, March 21, 2003
Honest elections are threatened by arbitrary rule of the authorities
rather than the work of journalists. Mass media reports on election
campaign outside of propaganda materials represent the most important
tool ensuring public control over the actions of bureaucracy.
|March 22, 2003
YAvlinsky's statement on the military operation against
RIA Oreanda, March 20, 2003
Moscow. Such developments could have been avoided.
However, we failed in
this task. Unfortunately, it is highly likely that the military
will lead to a considerable number of victims on both sides.
|March 21, 2003
Shishlov: Increase in payments for the title of "doctor
of science" will stimulate young scientists
Press release, March 19, 2003
On Wednesday, March 19, 2003, the State Duma adopted in the third reading
a law increasing from January 1, 2003, additional payments for teachers
at higher education institutions who are candidates or doctors of science.
According to the adopted law, additional payments will be increased
by three times and will constitute 900 roubles for a "candidate
of science" and 1,500 roubles for a "doctor of science".
Call for Peace in Chechnya
Smena, St.Petersburg, March 20, 2003
An open letter to all the citizens of Russia on
an end to the war in Chechnya was signed by 60 prominent figures
of arts and science in Russia.
all the Democrats Agreed
By Ekaterina Blatova, Novaya Gazeta, March 20, 2003
Explaining at a press conference the position of the
YABLOKO party, Deputy Head of the Party Igor
Artemyev said that: "In general we support
the adopted statement, but we think that a peaceful
conference must be chaired by the President of Russia,
as this is the only way to guarantee that the decisions
adopted at the conference are real and will be implemented".
Calls the Attack a Big Political Mistake
By Simon Saradzhyan and Oksana Yablokova, The Moscow Times, March 21, 2003
President Vladimir Putin on Thursday demanded an
immediate end to the U.S.-led military action against Iraq, denouncing
it as a "big political mistake" that threatens the existing
international security system and could lead to a humanitarian catastrophe
in the region.
Silent as Deadline Passes
By Simon Saradzhyan and Nabi Abdullaev, The Moscow Times, March 20, 2003
Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov made an 11th-hour appeal
against war at the UN Security Council on Wednesday, while the Kremlin
was conspicuously silent in a clear signal that Russia didn't want
to burn any bridges with U.S. or European partners.
of the Russian Democratic Party YABLOKO Grigory Yavlinsky
on the military operation against Iraq
Special statement for YABLOKO's web-site, March 20, 2003
...Russia must seek to achieve
First of all: to reduce the number of victims, by trying to ensure
a termination of the war as soon as possible. Secondly the conflict
will end and the situation will revert to a legal framework. This
happened several times after the Second World War and the formation
of the UN. Our country should preserve its strategic partnership
with Europe and the USA.
Finally the third objective...
Arbatov: United States Will Ask Russia, Europe and
the UN for Help
Interview with Alexei
Arbatov, Vremya Novostei, March 20, 2003
It's too late to change anything now. We should have
understood last autumn that Saddam Hussein's regime
would not survive, and started looking for other solutions
to the problem of weapons of mass destruction and
replacing the regime, without a war.
|March 20, 2003
Us Join Together to Stop the War in Chechnya
Novaya Gazeta, March 20, 2003
We call on our compatriots to do away with passivity and indifference.
We represent the state! The country is what we make of it.
Develops in Russian Policy towards Iraq Crisis
By Igor Torbakov, eurasianet.org, March 18, 2003
most in Moscow believe that a war with Iraq will seriously damage
Russian interests, a split is developing over how Russia should
respond to the imminent outbreak of war. One side appears ready
to continue opposition to US military action, while the other says
that Russia ought to embrace a realpolitik approach, and cooperate
with the inevitable.
Yavlinsky: "Russia should not send a single soldier
to the war."
Ekho Moskvi radio station, March 19, 2003
Speaking in an interview with Russian Ekho Moskvy
radio on 19 March, Grigory
Yavlinsky said a large international contingent
should be amassed to bring political and military
pressure to bear on Iraq, but that action should stop
short of a large-scale military operation. In the
same interview, the Yabloko leader also cast doubts
on the value of the Chechen referendum, arguing that
only a peace conference chaired by the Russian President
could alter the situation in the republic.
|March 19, 2003
Yavlinsky: "Mop-ups, robberies and violence should
Interview with Grigory Yavlinsky, "Politbureau" journal, March 17, 2003
The consequences of
an unprepared referendum can also bring dangers: they can aggravate
contradictions inside the Chechen community: they can play into
the hands of the forces interested in civil war.
Fifth Meeting of the All-Russia Democratic Assembly
adopted a statement on how to resolve the crisis in
Press release, March 17, 2003
...The long-term implications of an ill-timed and
unprepared referendum and the decisions adopted after
this referendum that can aggravate the opposition
inside the Chechen community and play into the hands
of the forces interested in civil war, are especially
the attitude towards holding a referendum on Constitution
in Chechnya and the necessity to convoke a peace conference."
Statement, The All-Russia Democratic Assembly, Moscow, March 17, 2003
The situation in Chechnya can only be resolved through a wide-ranging
political process, involving all the interested parties.
proposes applying military-political pressure against
Baghdad instead of force
Interfax, March 18, 2003
The leader of YABLOKO Grigory
Yavlinsky proposes applying military-political
pressure against Saddam Hussein's regime to resolve
the Iraqi crisis, instead of sheer force.
|March 18, 2003
Lukin: the President will speed up ratification of
the European Social Charter
MK-Novosti, March 15, 2003
"It is even good that things went this way,"
Lukin (YABLOKO), deputy speaker of the lower chamber
of the Russian parliament, in an interview with MK-Novosti,
on the rejection by the State Duma at its plenary
meeting on March 14, 2003, of the draft resolution,
calling on the President to speed up ratification
of the European Social Charter.
COMES A-COURTING, AND YABLOKO KEEPS ITS DISTANCE
By David White, RFE/RL Russian Political Weekly, Volume 3, Number 11, March 13, 2003
With parliamentary elections a matter of months
away, it can have come as no great surprise to followers of Russian
party politics when, at the end of January, moves toward closer
cooperation between Yabloko and the Union of Rightist Forces (SPS)
came to an end.
State of the Parties,
Positioning of the Russian political forces
By Dmitry Olshansky, Vremya Novostei, March 17, 2003
When determining the public's preferences six months
ago, pollsters assumed that the proportion of the "undecided"
(i.e. the floating voters who don't know whom to support, as nobody
seems to be worthy of support) was around 20-25%. This was normal,
with over a year before the elections. However, six months ago the
situation changed: the number of floating voters has increased to
some 40% of the electorate. Whom they may like and support at the
very last moment is a disturbing question.
offers Chechens sweeping autonomy under new constitution
AFP, March 17, 2003
The constitution would "give Chechnya a chance to reconstruct
its life and obtain sweeping autonomy within Russia's borders," Putin
said in a televised address broadcast late Sunday to the few Chechen households
that still have access to television.
Fares Badly in Press Freedom Rankings
Rosbalt, March 17, 2003
Finland, Iceland, Norway and the
Netherlands are the countries with the highest levels of press freedom.
This conclusion was reached by the Reporters sans Frontieres (Reporters
without Frontiers) charity, which today published a press freedom
index on its website.
|March 17, 2003
lost their minds and their protection!
By Yuri Schekochikhin,
Novaya Gazeta, March 13 ,2003
The creation of multiple security agencies (twelve at present) with
search and investigative rights, i.e. phone-tapping, surveillance,
etc. led to the criminalization of these agencies.
Nuclear Power Ministry can allot USD5 billion for
nuclear safety measures
Press release, March 13, 2003
Deputy of the State Duma, member of the YABLOKO faction,
has expressed his surprise over the statements by
some representatives from the nuclear power ministry
that the Minister for Nuclear Power Alexander Rumyantsev
had not allegedly expressed any readiness to discuss
with YABLOKO termination of the construction of new
nuclear power stations.
of international aid hampers destruction of Russia's
RIA Novosti, March 14, 2003
Moscow, March 14, 2003 (RIA Novosti correspondent
Eduard Puziryiv). Instead of the required USD2 billion required
to build a plant to destroy weapons-grade plutonium in Russia, the
international community has gathered only USD800 million, a RIA
Novosti correspondent quoted minister Alexander Rumyantsev, the
Ministry for Nuclear Power, as reporting on Friday.
memory of Larissa Yudina, Photogallery - updated
Russia - updated
Yavlinsky: Russia will not veto US resolution on Iraq
Rosbalt, March 14, 2003
In the next few days Russia will take "unexpected
steps" regarding the situation in Iraq, claims
the leader of the YABLOKO party.
predict social optimism at next federal elections.
ITAR-TASS, March 13, 2003
Russian sociology experts believe that the parliamentary
and presidential elections scheduled for the end of 2003 and the
first half of 2004 will be marked by high levels of social optimism,
as society has adapted to changes in the country, a high-ranking
expert said Thursday.
Reporters Without Borders, September 2001 (archive)
Those who ordered the June 1998 kidnapping and murder
of journalist Larissa
Yudina, editor the opposition newspaper Sovietskaya
Kalmykia Sevodnia, are still free.
Gusinsky's case - again functioning
Gitin Case - again functioning
|March 14, 2003
in Education - updated
Territory. The Legislative Assembly approves the initiative
to restrict the transfer of forestry areas to other
categories of fields
Regions.Ru, March 3, 2003
According to RIA Press-Line information agency today,
on March 3, 3003 members of the permanent Commission
on Natural Resources, Ecology and Protection of Nature
of the Legislative Assembly of Krasnoyarsk Territory
supported the draft law of the State Duma deputy Sergei
federal centre must become a guarantor for financing
in the education sector
Press release, March 5, 2003
The protest action organised last week by trade unions
of budget sector workers was a success, declared Alexander
Shishlov, Chairman of the State Duma Education
and Science Committee at a press conference on March
Shishlov: Russia's admission to the Bologna process
will become an important political step
Press release, March 7, 2003
Russia's admission to the Bologna process should be regarded within
the context of Russia's national interests and the development of Russia's
foreign policy aimed at cooperation and integration with Europe.
around Iraq - updated
politicians react to US ambassador's veiled threats
over Iraq veto
Ekho Moskvi, March 12, 2003
But I still hope
that the Americans will define their interests soberly, set emotions
to one side and understand that in this particular situation postponing
the operation is not a defeat but a major victory, which the whole
world will greet with applause.
Yavlinsky on the reforms in the security agencies
and staff reshuffles by the President
TVS channel, News, 11 March 2003
It would be important
to understand the problems of these ministries, what was unsatisfactory
in their work, what the difficulties were and where they did not
|March 13, 2003
Delicate Balancing Game
By Catherine Belton,The Moscow Times, March 13, 2003
A vote on a new UN Security Council resolution, which the United
States insists will come this week, could be one of Putin's biggest
tests. The question on everyone's lips is how far he is willing
to stick his neck out in opposing a U.S. war in Iraq.
Yabloko Party opposes an unprepared referendum in Chechnya
Interfax, March 12, 2003
MOSCOW. March 12 (Interfax) - Yabloko Party leader
Grigory Yavlinsky believes that the Chechen referendum has not been
fully prepared and that a peace conference with all the warring
parties should be held instead.
regulation of the crisis in Chechnya
Statement, The Russian Democratic Party YABLOKO, March 11, 2003
The Russian Democratic Party YABLOKO thinks that
the situation in Chechnya can only be settled as part of wide-ranging
political process involving all interested parties.
|March 12, 2003
Russia Sign Reactor Shutdown Deal
By Charles J. Hanley , Associated Press, March 12, 2003
VIENNA, Austria (AP) - The United States and Russia
signed agreements on
Wednesday reviving an on-again, off-again deal to shut down the
Russian reactors producing nuclear weapons-grade plutonium.
Yavlinsky on the president's reshuffles in the security
agencies and the appointment of Deputy Prime Minister
Valentina Matviyenko as Presidential Plenipotentiary
in the North-Western Federal district, March 11,
I think that the appointments made today by the President clearly demonstrate
how the President is establishing his priorities.
Reshuffles the Security Agencies
By Andrei Zolotov , The Moscow Times, March 12, 2003
President Vladimir Putin announced a sweeping reshuffle
of security posts Tuesday, putting his ally Viktor Cherkesov in
charge of a new federal anti-drug agency and strengthening the Federal
Security Service by giving it the border guards and communication
|March 11, 2003
WOMEN'S DAY- MARCH 8, 2003,
and Freedom of Expression, INTERNATIONAL PEN launches
a campaign in support of freedom of speech in Russia
and asks the President of Russia to take all necessary
steps to find and punish those who ordered the murder
of Larissa Yudina.
Join the campaign!
Enough Money to Protect the Nuclear Sector
By Dmitri Chernov, Vremya MN, March 6, 2003
There is at present no danger of another disaster like Chernobyl at the functioning reactors of nuclear power stations in Russia.
Ministry of Nuclear Power expresses its gratitude
to YABLOKO for inspecting the safety of nuclear power
Press release, March 5, 2003
In his speech in the State Duma on March 5, 2003,
the Minister of Nuclear Power Alexander Rumyantsev
expressed his gratitude to deputy of the YABLOKO faction
for his repeated criticism of the Ministry of Atomic
Energy regarding the poor state of physical protection
for nuclear power facilities.
Russia: Heroes and Lawyers.
By Vladimir Kovalev, Transitions Online, March 10, 2003
Secret awards given to FSB top brass in the wake of the Nord-Ost
crisis cause consternation, while former hostages pursue additional compensation.
around Iraq - updated
Yavlinsky: Russia's priority in the situation around
Iraq should be guarantees of security for the citizens
of Russia and the neighbouring regions
Press release, March 6, 2003
interests in the Iraqi conflict lie in guaranteeing security for the
citizens of Russia and stability of neighbouring regions, rather than
in setting a price for its support for America or in propping up the
should join a cold war on Iraq
By Grigory Yavlinsky, Financial Times (UK), March
In the manner of Andrei Gromyko, his Soviet predecessor, Igor
Russia's foreign minister, now repeatedly suggests that Moscow
might veto a
second United Nations resolution on Iraq. Meanwhile, President
Putin has maintained a protracted silence. According to today's
Kremlinologists, this role-play can mean only two things...
|March 07, 2003
Visa barriers separating Russia and Europe need to
be eliminated as soon as possible
Aliance Media, March 4, 2003
The first real step has been taken to the elimination
of the visa barriers separating the single European space, including
Russia. That is how Chairman of the Russian Democratic Party YABLOKO
Grigory Yavlinsky assessed the decision to form a working group
to implement the proposal to switch to a visa-free regime for trips
by Russian citizens to EU countries.
|March 06, 2003
Is Marching Left? An interview with political
Golov, YABLOKO party By Vladimir Ignatov,
Trud, March 5, 2003
Which of Russia's political forces can actually be described
as "really left wing"? We asked Anatoly Golov, St. Petersburg
political analyst and organisational committee member of the Civic
Forum of Voters, for his views.
and Russia Ready to Use Veto Against Iraq War
By John Tagliabue, The New York Times, March 6, 2003
PARIS, March 5 — France and Russia made clear today
that they were ready to use their veto power to block
passage of a new Security Council resolution authorizing
force against Iraq, but Secretary of State Colin L.
Powell said the United States would go to war without
United Nations backing if necessary.
|March 05, 2003
Iraqi Crisis: the Moment of Truth.
By Alexei Arbatov, Nezavisimaya Gazeta, No. 40, March 1, 2003
The situation around Iraq has entered a final pre-war stage.
For the whole world, the moment of truth is at hand. The outcome
of the crisis is set to determine both regional and global politics
for years to come, with repercussions ranging from relationships
among the leading powers to the prospects of global law and order,
to the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and fighting
|March 04, 2003
betrays right-wing parties in election committee vote
By Boris Sapozhnikov, gazeta.ru, February 13, 2003
On Wednesday the lower house voted to elect its representatives
to the Central Election Committee. The routine procedure
of electing new members led to a completely unexpected
alliance between the liberal Yabloko leader Grigory
Yavlinsky and the head of the ultra-nationalist
LDPR Vladimir Zhirinovsky, which helped Yabloko's
candidate keep her post in the CEC. The support of
the pro-presidential factions also made Yabloko's
victory possible, and was a slap in the face for the
becomes aide to parliamentarian Yushenkov
Interfax, March 3, 2003
MOSCOW. March 3 (Interfax) - Grigory Pasko, a military
journalist who was sentenced for spying and then released on parole,
on Monday became an aide to State Duma deputy and co-chairman of
the Liberal Russia party Sergei Yushenkov.
eliminating visa barriers between Russian and Europe
Statement of The Russian Democratic Party YABLOKO, February 20, 2003
The Russian Democratic Party YABLOKO supports the
formation of a Russia-EU working group to implement the proposal
to introduce a visa-free regime for trips by Russian citizens to
EU countries and is ready to render all manner of support to this
the visa barriers separating Russia and Europe must
be removed as soon as possible
Press release, February 20, 2003
The first real step towards an elimination of the visa barrier separating
the single European space, including Russia has been done.
or After the War
By Viktor Sheinis, Nezavisimaya Gazeta, March 3, 2003
The war of the US-led coalition against Saddam Hussein's regime
seems to be inevitable. How is Russia supposed to behave in a
situation which it hadn't provoked and in which, let's be frank,
hardly depends on it?
Prof. Babkin Case - updated
Babkin does not consider himself guilty
Prima News, February 21, 2003
"I was officially given money from the
funds officially obtained from the Pennsylvania University by
Bauman University in roubles," said Prof. Babkin.
Internet-press to be closed in Karelia
"Web-planeta", February 27, 2003
Head of the Centre for Political and Social Studies
of Karelia Anatoli Tzigankov said that the closing on February 12,
2002, of the web-site Politika.Karelia.Ru represents "fight
against independent opinions".
freedom of speech in Russia's media is shrinking like
Rosbalt, February 25, 2003
The Russian Democratic Party YABLOKO considers protection
of freedom of speech a political priority and a key
task for all democratic forces and therefore calls
on all democratic forces in the country to unite,
in order to oppose further attacks on freedom of speech.