Grigory A. Yavlinsky, Member of the State Duma and Head of the
Yabloko Movement, stressed the importance of human rights and
property rights if Russia is to reverse its downward spiral. There
are significant difficulties. How, for example, can a decent tax
system be implemented if 82% of economic turnover is by barter?
Banking must be made more transparent. Land reform and debt management
must be introduced, as well as bankruptcy procedures. Corruption
and the black market economy are major obstacles. In fact, "without
corruption, the system would not work," Yavlinsky said. He
criticized the power of what he called the "criminal nomenklatura,"
an oligarchy which controls society. China succeeded because the
reformers implemented changes for the people. In Russia, he explained,
the nomenklatura was greedy and selfish, implementing reforms
for their own ends. The system must be changed.